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Universal Serial Bus Links

Universal Serial Bus Links

description, organizations, IC manufacturers, connector specifications, cable and software
The USB [Universal Serial Bus] spec defines the Mechanical, Electrical and Protocol layers of the interface. Cables and connectors are fully defined. USB defines 2 types of hardware, Hubs and Functions. Up to 127 devices may be connected together in a tiered Star topology. The limiting factor being 7 address bits. The physical wire segments are point-to-point between a Host, Hub, or Function. The system may only have one Host, which connects to a Hub. A USB Hub may connect to another Hub or to a USB Function. Each layer transition from Hub to Hub represents another Tier. USB Hubs allow connection to a USB bus, while USB Functions are the devices which perform some function.

The USB bus is a [Differential] Bi-directional serial interface cable bus. Differential NRZI data is transmitted Isochronous or Asynchronous between devices. Data is transferred at three different rates over a maximum cable length of 4 meters ~ over 4 wires, 2 of which carry data on a balanced twisted pair.


USB may operate at any speed from 10kbps to 400Mbps in one of three speed modes. A Slow-Speed mode of 10kbps to 100kbps is used for devices such as a USB keyboard or USB mouse. Full-Speed mode is used by most devices and allows a transfer rate of 500kbps to 10Mbps. High-Speed mode [defined by USB 2.0] allows rates of up to 480Mbps, with a speed range of 25Mbps to 400Mbps. Transmission at the High-Speed mode requires the addition of 45 ohm termination resistors between each data line and ground. Operation at Full-Speed mode is 2.8 volts [High] to 0.3 volts [Low]. Operation at High-Speed mode is at 400mV +/-10% [High] to 0V +/- 10mV {Low]. Cable impedance for both modes is 90 ohms +/- 15% (differential).

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